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Table 1 Factors, variables, and development of questionnaire

From: Evaluating determinants of rural Villagers’ engagement in conservation and waste management behaviors based on integrated conceptual framework of Pro-environmental behavior

Factors Variables Survey questions Response categories
Pro-environmental behaviors: ecological conservation behaviors (ECB) Frequency of engagement in
- Biological conservation
- Ecological conservation such as local animal conservation
Have you ever been involved in the community’s environmental conservation activity such as avoiding cutting trees, planting trees in damaged forest areas, or conducting integrated farming? 1 = No involvement
5 = Regular involvement
Have you ever eaten or harvested baby crabs and/or pregnant crabs caught in the community? 1 = Regular involvement
5 = No involvement
Pro-environmental behaviors: Waste management behaviors (WMB) Frequency of engagement in
- Reusing and recycling products
- Waste reduction
How often do you reuse or recycle things such as plastic bags and bottles? 1 = No involvement
5 = Regular involvement
Have you avoided using a plastic bag when buying a few goods?
Life satisfaction Satisfaction with life overall Are you satisfied with your life in general? 1 = Not at all
5 = Absolutely
Satisfaction with social condition Are you satisfied with the social condition in the community?
Satisfaction with economic status Are you satisfied with your economic condition?
Place attachment Place dependence I feel comfortable living in this community. 1 = Absolutely not
5 = Absolutely yes
Place identity I am very attached to this community.
Environmental worldview Perception of “human-nature relation” How much do you agree with these statements?
-The balance of nature is very fragile and easily disrupted.
-Human activities sometimes contribute to environmental changes.
-Human beings have the right to modify the environment in response to their needs.
-The ecological system exists to support human needs.
-Development has its limitations, and population growth is higher than nature can support.
1 = Strongly disagree
5 = Strongly agree
Perception of “limiting growth”
Perception of “human dominance over nature”
Perceived environmental values Perceived environmental values Your community has fresh air and good environments suitable for recreational activities. 1 = Strongly disagree
5 = Strongly agree
Your community has fresh air, good environments suitable for living.
Environmental knowledge Environmental phenomena How much do you know about current environmental phenomena such as the climate situation? 1 = Not at all
5 = Well understand
Causes of environmental problem How much do you know about the cause of environmental problems such as climate change?
Environmental management How much do you know about how to act environmentally?
Sense of obligation and self-efficacy Willingness to pay for the environment Are you willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products? 1 = Absolutely not
4 = Absolutely willing
Perception of the self’s capability to solve environmental problems Do you think a single person’s actions can contribute to the improvement of environmental quality? 1 = Absolutely not
5 = Absolutely contribute
Social norm Social norm Your neighbors pay attention to issues related to ecological conservation and environmental protection. 1 = Not at all
5 = Absolutely
Psychosocial characteristics Gender Please indicate your gender  
Age Please indicate you age
Career Please indicate your career
Education level Please indicate your education level
Income Please indicate your income/month