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Table 2 Definition of the research variables

From: Sociological factors influencing the performance of organic activities in Iran

Type of VariableVariablesDefinitions
IndependentKnowledge of organic agriculture principlesPeople’s awareness level on the principles of organic agriculture include health, ecology, fairness and care.
IndependentMoral normsThey are considered as a pattern for public expectation of behavior rising from group values. In the present study, moral norms are the society’s expectations, as well as farmers’ self-expectation of performing environmental activities as a moral commitment in a particular situation (for instance, not using chemical inputs).
IndependentResponsibility of pro-environmental behaviorResponsibility includes honesty, respect, responsiveness, justice, and courage. In addition, the responsibility of behavior is commitment to perform personal acts and accept the consequence of those acts. In the study, the responsibility of behavior means accepting the consequences of agricultural activities by farmers and trying to decrease undesired environmental consequences.
IndependentEnvironmental identityIt is the internal and mental relationship with natural and non-human environment based on historical record, emotional affiliations, and similarities which affect human behavior with the world. Overall, human belongs to environment and that nature is part of him.
IndependentAttitude to negative consequences of the conventional agricultureEvaluating the conventional agriculture consequences negatively or positively, as well as the attitude toward the outcomes of this agriculture system
IndependentSocial normsThe norms are considered as the regulations conducting behaviors. In the present study, they refer to farmers’ perception of social expectations and pressures to show pro-environmental behaviors.
IntermediatePerceived control of pro- environmental behaviorPeople’s perception of their control on personal actions to protect the environment by choosing and being willing to do pro-environmental activities such as organic agriculture
IntermediateAttitude to the environmentPeople’s belief in environmental problems and concerns about these problems or a complicated and multi-dimensional concept including negative and positive emotions on the environment, and a mental state which affects people’s selections on the environment
IntermediateIntention for organic agricultureThe intention means providing the personal instructions to perform a set of particular actions for achieving planned aims. Therefore, it is defined as individual’s intention to plan for eliminating each type of harmful and chemical inputs in agricultural activities, as well as adopting the organic agriculture.
DependentAdoption of organic agricultural activitiesImplementing the principles and different techniques of organic agriculture properly and practically such as replacing compost, vermicompost and green fertilizers instead of chemical inputs, no-tillage technology, etc.
  1. (2018; Rehfus 2003; Sheeran and Webb 2016; Clayton 2003; Malek-Saeidi et al. 2012; Tatlıdil et al. 2009; King and Ilbery 2012; Rigby and Cáceres 2001; Stryker and Burke 2000)