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Table 2 Technical impacts of laser land levelling technology

From: A socio-psychological model of laser levelling impacts assessment

IndicatorsPriorityRank meanPositive impactNo impact
LowAverageHigh
FrequencyPercentFrequencyPercentFrequencyPercentFrequencyPercent
Water consumption
 Water consumption52.53117.34731.19160.3  
 Irrigation time112.40117.35737.77851.732.0
 Uniform distribution of water12.7364.02717.911676.8  
 Irrigation method142.361610.64731.18153.653.3
 Frequency of irrigation202.261811.9503.17348.385.3
 Deep percolation of water152.351711.35234.47650.332.0
 Water waste62.52138.63321.99965.642.6
 Moisture-holding capacity242.141610.65939.16241.1127.9
 Underground waters level311.912717.95133.85234.41912.6
Yield management
 Uniform germination of crop72.50127.94429.19260.921.3
 Uniform growth of crop32.5685.34328.59764.221.3
 Crop yield162.34138.66039.77348.342.6
 Crop shedding192.281711.34529.87851.796.0
 Yielding period length391.592415.94529.84127.23925.8
 Density of crop252.082013.25838.45838.4138.6
 Turnaround time between harvesting one crop and planting another361.642113.95033.14127.23623.8
 Planting date371.632113.94731.14328.53825.2
 Harvest date341.672415.94429.14630.53523.2
 Increasing positive competition for more production311.912617.26241.14529.81610.6
Mechanization
 Improving machineries traverse (Improving field trafficability)132.37106.64630.58455.685.3
 Machineries speed (time saving)82.48127.94328.59059.632.0
 Traffic of tractor in the field212.252315.24127.27650.385.3
 Using zero tillage planting142.361912.64127.28455.653.3
 Using Conservation tillage22.571912.64328.58254.342.6
 Using chopper-combine192.281912.65133.87348.364.0
 Combinate use182.322315.24227.88053.042.6
 Using modern solutions sprayer222.191711.35033.17046.4127.9
 Time taken for land preparation232.162214.64429.17046.4127.9
 Time taken for planting242.141711.35234.46744.4149.3
 Time taken for harvesting112.40127.95133.87147.0159.9
Good farming
 Facilitating agricultural activities42.54127.94529.89361.6  
 Farm infrastructures291.972516.65033.15737.71811.9
 Cropping pattern351.662717.94429.14429.13321.9
 Crop rotation381.603019.94026.54328.53623.8
 Land fallow401.522415.94026.54127.24328.5
 Crop diversity381.602717.94127.24429.13825.2
 Tillage operation172.331610.65838.47247.732.0
 Land consolidation102.42127.94429.18858.364.0
 Pesticide consumption361.643925.84026.54328.52919.2
 Number of spraying pesticides331.703321.94731.14328.52717.9
 Fertilizer consumption271.982617.25335.15536.41610.6
 Seed consumption262.073019.95435.85737.785.3
 Fossil fuel consumption321.893724.55737.74529.8127.9
 Electricity use301.923221.25033.15335.11610.6
Farm area expansion
 Crete’s sizes92.44117.34831.88556.342.6
 Expansion of total area planting122.39117.35939.17650.332.0
 Cultivable area (Farm useful area)112.401711.34831.88153.621.3
 Cultivation in barren lands192.281912.65133.87348.364.0