A research article shall mainly be about original research contribution, featured with empirical data and findings. Such original research should state the questions addressed and their context relative to prior knowledge on the subject. The relevant theories should be presented, the research design decisions should be justified, and the research methods should be described in detail to permit an evaluation of their quality. The interpretation of the results must be supported by the data. The conclusions should explain the significance of the results for advancing research or practice.
Preparing your manuscript
The title page should:
- present a title that includes, if appropriate, the research design or for non-research studies: a description of what the article reports
- list the full names and institutional addresses for all authors
- if a collaboration group should be listed as an author, please list the Group name as an author and include the names of the individual members of the Group in the “Acknowledgements” section in accordance with the instructions below
- indicate the corresponding author
The abstract should briefly summarize the aim, findings or purpose of the article. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract.
See the criteria section for this article type (located at the top of this page) for information on article word limits.
Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article.
The Introduction section should explain the background to the article, its aims, a summary of a search of the existing literature and the issue under discussion.
This should contain the body of the article, and may also be broken into subsections with short, informative headings.
This should state clearly the main conclusions and include an explanation of their relevance or importance to the field.
List of abbreviations
If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.
All manuscripts must contain the following sections under the heading 'Declarations':
- Availability of data and materials
- Competing interests
- Authors' contributions
- Authors' information (optional)
Please see below for details on the information to be included in these sections.
If any of the sections are not relevant to your manuscript, please include the heading and write 'Not applicable' for that section.
Availability of data and materials
For all journals, BioMed Central strongly encourages all datasets on which the conclusions of the manuscript rely to be either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main paper or additional supporting files, in machine-readable format (such as spreadsheets rather than PDFs) whenever possible. Please see the list of recommended repositories in our editorial policies.
For some journals, deposition of the data on which the conclusions of the manuscript rely is an absolute requirement. Please check the Criteria section for this article type (located at the top of this page) for journal specific policies.
For all journals, authors must include an “Availability of data and materials” section in their article detailing where the data supporting their findings can be found. If you do not wish to share your data, please state that data will not be shared, and state the reason.
For instructions on how to cite your data and format this section see preparation/style and formatting.
If you wish to co-submit a data note describing your data to be published in BMC Research Notes, you can do so by visiting our submission portal. Data notes support open data and help authors to comply with funder policies on data sharing. Co-published data notes will be linked to the research article the data support (example).
For more information please email our Research Data Team.
All financial and non-financial competing interests must be declared in this section. See our editorial policies for a full explanation of competing interests. If you are unsure whether you or any of your co-authors have a competing interest please contact the editorial office.
All sources of funding for the research reported should be declared. The role of the funding body in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript should be declared.
The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section.
Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article who does not meet the criteria for authorship including anyone who provided professional writing services or materials.
Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section.
See our editorial policies for a full explanation of acknowledgements and authorship criteria.
Group authorship: if you would like the names of the individual members of a collaboration Group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records (where applicable), please ensure that the title of the collaboration Group is included on the title page and in the submission system and also include collaborating author names as the last paragraph of the “Acknowledgements” section. Please add authors in the format First Name, Middle initial(s) (optional), Last Name. You can add institution or country information for each author if you wish, but this should be consistent across all authors.
You may choose to use this section to include any relevant information about the author(s) that may aid the reader's interpretation of the article, and understand the standpoint of the author(s). This may include details about the authors' qualifications, current positions they hold at institutions or societies, or any other relevant background information. Please refer to authors using their initials. Note this section should not be used to describe any competing interests.
Footnotes should be designated within the text using a superscript number. It is not allowed to use footnotes for references/citations.
Examples of the Chicago reference style are shown below.
See our editorial policies for author guidance on good citation practice.
Web links and URLs: All web links and URLs, including links to the authors' own websites, should be given a reference number and included in the reference list rather than within the text of the manuscript. They should be provided in full, including both the title of the site and the URL, as well as the date the site was accessed, in the following format: The Mouse Tumor Biology Database. http://tumor.informatics.jax.org/mtbwi/index.do. Accessed 20 May 2013. If an author or group of authors can clearly be associated with a web link, such as for weblogs, then they should be included in the reference.
Example reference style:
Article within a journal
Alber, John, Daniel C O'Connell, and Sabine Kowal. 2002. Personal perspective in TV interviews. Pragmatics 12: 257-271.
Article by DOI (with page numbers)
Slifka, MK, and JL Whitton. 2000. Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Journal of Molecular Medicine 78:74-80. doi:10.1007/s001090000086.
Article by DOI (before issue publication and without page numbers)
Suleiman, Camelia, Daniel C O'Connell, and Sabine Kowal. 2002. 'If you and I, if we, in this later day, lose that sacred fire...': Perspective in political interviews. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. doi: 10.1023/A:1015592129296.
Article in electronic journal by DOI (no paginated version)
Slifka, MK, and JL Whitton. 2000. Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Online Journal of Molecular Medicine. doi:10.1007/s001090000086.
Cameron, Deborah. 1985. Feminism and linguistic theory. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Book chapter, or an article within a book
Cameron, Deborah. 1997. Theoretical debates in feminist linguistics: Questions of sex and gender. In Gender and discourse, ed. Ruth Wodak, 99-119. London: Sage Publications.
OnlineFirst chapter in a series (without a volume designation but with a DOI)
Saito, Yukio, and Hyuga Hiroyuki. 2007. Rate equation approaches to amplification of enantiomeric excess and chiral symmetry breaking. Topics in Current Chemistry. doi:10.1007/128_2006_108.
Complete book, also showing a translated edition [Either edition may be listed first.]
Adorno, TW. 1966. Negative Dialektik. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. English edition: Adorno, TW 1973. Negative Dialectics (trans: Ashton, EB). London: Routledge.
Frisch, Mathias. 2007. Does a low-entropy constraint prevent us from influencing the past? PhilSci archive. http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00003390. Accessed 26 June 2007.
German emigrants database. 1998. Historisches Museum Bremerhaven. http://www.deutsche-auswanderer-datenbank.de. Accessed 21 June 2007.
Supplementary material/private homepage
Doe, John. 2006. Title of supplementary material. http://www.privatehomepage.com. Accessed 22 Feb 2007.
Doe, J. 1999. Trivial HTTP, RFC2169. ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2169.txt. Accessed 12 Nov 2006.
ISSN International Centre. 2006. The ISSN register. http://www.issn.org. Accessed 20 Feb 2007
Figures, tables and additional files
See General formatting guidelines for information on how to format figures, tables and additional files.
Annual Journal Metrics
121 days to first decision for reviewed manuscripts only
81 days to first decision for all manuscripts
153 days from submission to acceptance
30 days from acceptance to publication
34 Altmetric mentions
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